Sunday, December 29, 2019

Settlement of International Disputes - 1151 Words

2.3 SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES Since the 1980s a radical development has taken place in international dispute settlement. The number of international courts, tribunals and other international dispute resolution mechanisms has increased dramatically. Nowadays, International arbitration is a leading method for resolving disputes arising from international commercial agreements and other international relationships. The practice of international arbitration has developed so as to allow parties from different legal and cultural backgrounds to resolve their disputes, generally without the formalities of their respective legal systems There are a number of reasons that parties desire to have their international disputes resolved through arbitration as these include the willingness of the parties to avoid the uncertainties and local practices associated with litigation in national courts, to obtain a quicker more resourceful decision and the relative enforceability of arbitration agreements and arbitral awards. The parties have the freedom to choose and design the arbitral procedures, privacy and other benefits. International arbitration is sometimes explained as a hybrid form of dispute resolution which permits parties broad elasticity in crafting arbitral procedures. Illustration:- The international bar association rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Commercial Arbitration, revised in 2010. These rules adopt neither the common law jurisdictions broad disclosureShow MoreRelatedThe Trade Organization And International Dispute Settlement3215 Words   |  13 Pages(â€Å"WTO†) Dispute Settlement System and the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (â€Å"ICSID†) are two of the most widely used methods of international dispute settlement. An important reason for this popularity is that States have consented in advance to compulsory dispute settlement by the WTO and also, but to a lesser extent, by ICSID arbitration. In the case of the WTO it is the WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding that confers compulsory jurisdiction on the WTO Dispute SettlementRead MoreInternational Dispute Settlement : An Inevitable Element Of International Relations963 Words   |  4 PagesDisputes between states are an inevitable element of international relations, especially in an increasingly globalized and interconnected world. International dispute settlement methods not only mitigate the consequences of a dispute, but given that the parties are acting in good faith, it can resolve a dispute entirely. The first chapter begins by offering a definition of a dispute; distinguishing it from a conflict and general tension or animosity. Also crucial to the understanding of internationalRead MoreThe Importance of International Trade Regulation Mechanisms Has Risen1672 Words   |  7 PagesSince the global power shift caused by the advent of new political arena - international organization, the importance of international trade regulation mechanisms has risen. Currently, out of dozens of such mechanisms, the World Trade Organization performs its role of the most prominent international economic organization. WTO, established in 1995 as a successor of GATT is aimed at â€Å"helping trade flow as freely as possible† by liberalizing it. It has over 150 state-members and therefore is inevitableRead MoreHow Does The Wto Resolve Trade Disputes?1198 Words   |  5 Pages1. How does the WTO resolve trade disputes? How is the WTO’s dispute settlement mechanism different from the GATT’s dispute settlement process? â€Å"Any member can file a complaint with the World Trade Organization against another member they believe is dumping, unfairly subsidizing or violating any other trade agreement. If the WTO decides the case is valid, it has the authority to levy sanctions on the offending country. The staff will then investigate to see if a violation of any multilateral agreementsRead MoreLdcs’ Benefits And Wto Dsu . Trade Liberalization Has Been1714 Words   |  7 PagesLDCs’ Benefits and WTO DSU Trade liberalization has been exploited international trade. Protectionism, dumping, national treatment and other unfair trades are destroying those victims as less developing countries. However, after creation, WTO has been doing its job to provide an efficiency, stable and accessible environment to international trades. Increasing of trade laws in dispute settlement as trade-related intellectual rights, countervailing measure, national treatment, anti-dumping and safeguardRead MoreThe Case Of The Us Brazil Cotton Subsidy Dispute1414 Words   |  6 PagesWith the development of global economy, an increasing number of world trade issues more or less presented. Every year World Trade Organization (WTO) would receive various cases that could be trade dispute. In this case study, it will analyze the case of the US-Brazil cotton subsidy dispute upon following questions, and there is some background related to this case that will be presented first. Cotton is one of the most important commercial crops, and it is the one of the most important export productsRead MoreInternational Law Aids Conflict Resolution Essay1270 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction International law sets out principles in respect to a state’s legal relationship with other states in many areas including transnational crimes, state boundaries, oceans, and world trade to name a few. Without international law, chaos and tension could develop. Disputes are unavoidable when there are overlapping jurisdictional claims over the sovereignty of a particular area. The recent escalation of tensions in the East and South China Seas has directed attention to the likelihoodRead MoreCooperation And The Requirement Of Stronger Enforcement1148 Words   |  5 Pagescooperation and the requirement of stronger enforcement or more systematic dispute settlement mechanism. My second hypothesis is that international institutions or treaties of members of significantly asymmetric national capability will have a stronger dispute settlement mechanism. That is to say, In other words, an institution that contains asymmetry of power in terms of national capacity, military capacity, economic capability, and legal resources should have stronger DSMs. In this situation,Read MoreConflict Management Arbitration and Mediation1006 Words   |  4 Pageseconomical means of dispute resolution is an important element in the orderly growth and encouragement of international investment and trade. Increasingly, arbitration and mediation, instead of litigation in national courts, have become the preferred means of resolving international commercial disputes. Arbitration: Arbitration is a procedure in which a dispute is submitted, by agreement of the parties, to an arbitrator or to a tribunal of several arbitrators who give a decision on the dispute that is bindingRead Mor eThe Importance of International Commercial Arbitration Essay644 Words   |  3 PagesIntroduction International commercial arbitration is one of the most important legal institutions in international private law. This conclusion follows from the fact that the nature of arbitration depends largely on autonomy of the parties, who choose arbitration procedure as the procedure in which the dispute will be settled; place where the arbitration is to be held; arbitral tribunal etc. Probably the most important and considerable expression of the autonomy is the right to choose the law, which

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Emile Durkheim and The Science of Sociology Essay

Introduction Emile Durkheim was born in France in April of 1858 and died in November of 1917. He was from a close Jewish community that he continued to be close to even after breaking with the Jewish church. Having come from a long family line of rabbis, he had planned to follow in that profession. Durkheim was known as the Father of Sociology. He was a liberal, a modernist, and a nationalist. He was a very ambitious man; this ambition was illustrated by the accomplishments he made over the course of his life. During the conflict surrounding the Dreyfus Affair, Durkheim used the new field of sociology to try to make sense of society and the world around him. The Dreyfus Affair was a government cover up framing a Jewish captain†¦show more content†¦He did not want to predict individual suicide but rather to study suicide rates. He looked at it from more of a statistical and analytical method. Suicide was defined a few times throughout the work, as the definition was changed to consider a perspective that he had not yet taken into account. A common idea of suicide was a positive and violent action such as a person shooting themselves, but suicide can also be a negative act such as a refusal to eat. Durkheim named suicide as a category that can also cover some instances not usually associated with suicide. A few examples of that are a soldier going into battle knowing he will be killed, a martyr that dies for the cause, and a businessman that kills himself after going bankrupt. Most people would not consider that soldier suicidal nor would they consider the martyrdom a suicide. However, both of those scenarios include people going into a situation despite the fact that they know they will die. According to Durkheim (1951), it did not matter if the person just accepted death as unavoidable or they actually wanted to die because the two scenarios were close enough to be broadly grouped together (Durkheim, Suicide: A Study in Sociology, 1951). Basically he was saying that if the person sacrifices their life and gives their soul, the most precious gift they have, it can be classified as suicide. Suicide, being a personal decision that affects only that person, was generally thoughtShow MoreRelatedEmile Durkheim: the Division of Labor1152 Words   |  5 PagesEmile Durkheim and the Division of Labor June 15, 2012 Emile Durkheim and the Division of Labor Functionalism is one of the baselines in sociology and Emile Durkheim is one of the main players in defining the field of sociology as a science. He believed that every social structure existed only because it satisfied a specific social need. Additionally, it was Durkheim’s desire to delineate how sociology would be used and considered and to give it the tools of scientific methodology (VissingRead MoreThe Theories of Emile Durkkheim Essay1475 Words   |  6 PagesThe Theories of Emile Durkheim Emile Durkheim also referred to as â€Å"The Father of Sociology† (Thio, 2002), played a critical role in establishing theories based on â€Å"Social Facts† (Thio, 2002) He is best known for his views of â€Å"social reality†( Thio, 2002) and their ties into how a society works. He was said to be a sociologist who played an important part in the development of â€Å"structural functionalism† (Thio, 2002), and sociology as a whole. His four major studies, or publications, have assuredRead MoreEssay about The Life of Emile Durkheim1371 Words   |  6 PagesEmile Durkheim was French sociologist. He was born on April 15, 1858 in Epinal, France. Epinal is located in the Eastern French Province, Lorraine. His father, Moise was the Chief Rabbi of Epinal, Vosges, and Haute-Marne, while his mother, Melanie, worked as an embroiderer. Durkheim was the youngest of their four surviving children. Durkheim’s great-grandfather, grandfather, and father were all Jewish rabbis. He was expected to follow suit so at a young age he was sent to a rabbinicalRead MoreMoral Value Of Science By Max Weber Essay1575 Words   |  7 PagesMoral Value of Science by Max Weber Emile Durkheim Introduction Max Weber and Emile Durkheim are seen as two comparative analysts in regards to the issue of sociology history. During their work, they were faced with a lot of issues that come up during comparative analysis which the sought ways to overcome them and some of the techniques they used are still considered intrusive till today. They both came up with major statements in the course of their carriers which were both methodological andRead MoreDifference Between Max Weber And Emile Durkheim1286 Words   |  6 PagesTwo of the fathers of sociology, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber, each worked to establish sociology as a distinct subject of study. However, their understandings of the underpinnings of sociology, and therefore the methods best used to study it, were very different. Together, they give the modern sociologist competing, yet complimentary, tools with which to understand social phenomena. When writing his book, Suicide: A Study in Sociology, Emile Durkheim wanted to show that empirical data could be usedRead MoreLike Any Scientific Discipline, Sociology Has Its Own Object1455 Words   |  6 PagesLike any scientific discipline, sociology has its own object and subject of research. The object is understood as the sphere of reality that is to be studied, and to this the research is directed. Consequently, the object of sociology is society. But society is explored by many disciplines, such as history, philosophy, economics, political science, etc. At the same time, each of the named social sciences distinguishes its specific aspects, the properties of the object, which become the subject ofRead MoreWhy Durkheim s Work Suicide Is Significant For The Discipline Of Sociology1323 Words   |  6 Pagesare different theories that help us focus on different aspects of society. In this essay I will discuss the various forms of suicide defined by Durkheim. I will then predica te this explanation by resources to Durkheim meta theory that we ve discussed in lectures. Lastly I will explain why Durkheim’s work Suicide is significant for the discipline of sociology. The action of suicide has been in society since the dawn of man. Before Durkheim’s research, no one has been able to thoroughly explain why suicideRead MoreSummary of Durkheims Sociological Theory958 Words   |  4 PagesEmile Durkheim is one of the major leaders in the delineation of sociology. Durkheim set out on a mission to define how sociology should be considered and how the method of sociology should be used. Although Durkheim’s writing does touch upon certain moral, political organization, and intellectual issues, overall, Durkheim sets out to provide a theoretical construction for the study of sociology. Durkheim desires to understand societal life through various social constructs. His agenda entailsRead MoreSocial Theory Of Society By Emile Durkheim968 Words   |  4 Pagesare. Society is define differently to Emile Durkheim, one of the first official Sociologist, he defines society as a â€Å"thing† and believed that harmony, than conflict, defined society. This essay will contain information how society forms and function, in other words, how it maintains order and stability to support various relationships with one another or group collectively. Also, thoughts Durkheim has on social facts. Emile Durkheim believed in sociology, the social facts, and aspects in socialRead MoreI Am an Individual986 Words   |  4 PagesAre we individuals? According to Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), â€Å"society has a strong influence on the individuals who need to adapt themselves to and already determined fixed society† (Frazaneh, 2008, p. 1).Max Weber (1864-1920) on the other hand states that, â€Å"the response or reaction of the individual is a determining factor that constantly and consistently shapes and molds society itself† (Frazaneh, 2008, p. 1). Emile Durkheim was a French sociologist, who is cited by some as the principal architect

Friday, December 13, 2019

Twilight 6. SCARY STORIES Free Essays

string(34) " see Jessica glowering at us now\." 6. SCARY STORIES As I sat in my room, trying to concentrate on the third act of Macbeth, I was really listening for my truck. I would have thought, even over the pounding rain, I could have heard the engine’s roar. We will write a custom essay sample on Twilight 6. SCARY STORIES or any similar topic only for you Order Now But when I went to peek out the curtain – again – it was suddenly there. I wasn’t looking forward to Friday, and it more than lived up to my non-expectations. Of course there were the fainting comments. Jessica especially seemed to get a kick out of that story. Luckily Mike had kept his mouth shut, and no one seemed to know about Edward’s involvement. She did have a lot of questions about lunch, though. â€Å"So what did Edward Cullen want yesterday?† Jessica asked in Trig. â€Å"I don’t know,† I answered truthfully. â€Å"He never really got to the point.† â€Å"You looked kind of mad,† she fished. â€Å"Did I?† I kept my expression blank. â€Å"You know, I’ve never seen him sit with anyone but his family before. That was weird.† â€Å"Weird,† I agreed. She seemed annoyed; she flipped her dark curls impatiently – I guessed she’d been hoping to hear something that would make a good story for her to pass on. The worst part about Friday was that, even though I knew he wasn’t going to be there, I still hoped. When I walked into the cafeteria with Jessica and Mike, I couldn’t keep from looking at his table, where Rosalie, Alice, and Jasper sat talking, heads close together. And I couldn’t stop the gloom that engulfed me as I realized I didn’t know how long I would have to wait before I saw him again. At my usual table, everyone was full of our plans for the next day. Mike was animated again, putting a great deal of trust in the local weatherman who promised sun tomorrow. I’d have to see that before I believed it. But it was warmer today – almost sixty. Maybe the outing wouldn’t be completely miserable. I intercepted a few unfriendly glances from Lauren during lunch, which I didn’t understand until we were all walking out of the room together. I was right behind her, just a foot from her slick, silver blond hair, and she was evidently unaware of that. â€Å"†¦don’t know why Bella† – she sneered my name – â€Å"doesn’t just sit with the Cullens from now on.† I heard her muttering to Mike. I’d never noticed what an unpleasant, nasal voice she had, and I was surprised by the malice in it. I really didn’t know her well at all, certainly not well enough for her to dislike me – or so I’d thought. â€Å"She’s my friend; she sits with us,† Mike whispered back loyally, but also a bit territorially. I paused to let Jess and Angela pass me. I didn’t want to hear any more. That night at dinner, Charlie seemed enthusiastic about my trip to La Push in the morning. I think he felt guilty for leaving me home alone on the weekends, but he’d spent too many years building his habits to break them now. Of course he knew the names of all the kids going, and their parents, and their great-grandparents, too, probably. He seemed to approve. I wondered if he would approve of my plan to ride to Seattle with Edward Cullen. Not that I was going to tell him. â€Å"Dad, do you know a place called Goat Rocks or something like that? I think it’s south of Mount Rainier,† I asked casually. â€Å"Yeah – why?† I shrugged. â€Å"Some kids were talking about camping there.† â€Å"It’s not a very good place for camping.† He sounded surprised. â€Å"Too many bears. Most people go there during the hunting season.† â€Å"Oh,† I murmured. â€Å"Maybe I got the name wrong.† I meant to sleep in, but an unusual brightness woke me. I opened my eyes to see a clear yellow light streaming through my window. I couldn’t believe it. I hurried to the window to check, and sure enough, there was the sun. It was in the wrong place in the sky, too low, and it didn’t seem to be as close as it should be, but it was definitely the sun. Clouds ringed the horizon, but a large patch of blue was visible in the middle. I lingered by the window as long as I could, afraid that if I left the blue would disappear again. The Newtons’ Olympic Outfitters store was just north of town. I’d seen the store, but I’d never stopped there – not having much need for any supplies required for being outdoors over an extended period of time. In the parking lot I recognized Mike’s Suburban and Tyler’s Sentra. As I pulled up next to their vehicles, I could see the group standing around in front of the Suburban. Eric was there, along with two other boys I had class with; I was fairly sure their names were Ben and Conner. Jess was there, flanked by Angela and Lauren. Three other girls stood with them, including one I remembered falling over in Gym on Friday. That one gave me a dirty look as I got out of the truck, and whispered something to Lauren. Lauren shook out her cornsilk hair and eyed me scornfully. So it was going to be one of those days. At least Mike was happy to see me. â€Å"You came!† he called, delighted. â€Å"And I said it would be sunny today, didn’t I?† â€Å"I told you I was coming,† I reminded him. â€Å"We’re just waiting for Lee and Samantha†¦ unless you invited someone,† Mike added. â€Å"Nope,† I lied lightly, hoping I wouldn’t get caught in the lie. But also wishing that a miracle would occur, and Edward would appear. Mike looked satisfied. â€Å"Will you ride in my car? It’s that or Lee’s mom’s minivan.† â€Å"Sure.† He smiled blissfully. It was so easy to make Mike happy. â€Å"You can have shotgun,† he promised. I hid my chagrin. It wasn’t as simple to make Mike and Jessica happy at the same time. I could see Jessica glowering at us now. You read "Twilight 6. SCARY STORIES" in category "Essay examples" The numbers worked out in my favor, though. Lee brought two extra people, and suddenly every seat was necessary. I managed to wedge Jess in between Mike and me in the front seat of the Suburban. Mike could have been more graceful about it, but at least Jess seemed appeased. It was only fifteen miles to La Push from Forks, with gorgeous, dense green forests edging the road most of the way and the wide Quillayute River snaking beneath it twice. I was glad I had the window seat. We’d rolled the windows down – the Suburban was a bit claustrophobic with nine people in it – and I tried to absorb as much sunlight as possible. I’d been to the beaches around La Push many times during my Forks summers with Charlie, so the mile-long crescent of First Beach was familiar to me. It was still breathtaking. The water was dark gray, even in the sunlight, white-capped and heaving to the gray, rocky shore. Islands rose out of the steel harbor waters with sheer cliff sides, reaching to uneven summits, and crowned with austere, soaring firs. The beach had only a thin border of actual sand at the water’s edge, after which it grew into millions of large, smooth stones that looked uniformly gray from a distance, but close up were every shade a stone could be: terra-cotta, sea green, lavender, blue gray, dull gold. The tide line was strewn with huge driftwood trees, bleached bone white in the salt waves, some piled together against the edge of the forest fringe, some lying solitary, just out of reach of the waves. There was a brisk wind coming off the waves, cool and briny. Pelicans floated on the swells while seagulls and a lone eagle wheeled above them. The clouds still circled the sky, threatening to invade at any moment, but for now the sun shone bravely in its halo of blue sky. We picked our way down to the beach, Mike leading the way to a ring of driftwood logs that had obviously been used for parties like ours before. There was a fire circle already in place, filled with black ashes. Eric and the boy I thought was named Ben gathered broken branches of driftwood from the drier piles against the forest edge, and soon had a teepee-shaped construction built atop the old cinders. â€Å"Have you ever seen a driftwood fire?† Mike asked me. I was sitting on one of the bone-colored benches; the other girls clustered, gossiping excitedly, on either side of me. Mike kneeled by the fire, lighting one of the smaller sticks with a cigarette lighter. â€Å"No,† I said as he placed the blazing twig carefully against the teepee. â€Å"You’ll like this then – watch the colors.† He lit another small branch and laid it alongside the first. The flames started to lick quickly up the dry wood. â€Å"It’s blue,† I said in surprise. â€Å"The salt does it. Pretty, isn’t it?† He lit one more piece, placed it where the fire hadn’t yet caught, and then came to sit by me. Thankfully, Jess was on his other side. She turned to him and claimed his attention. I watched the strange blue and green flames crackle toward the sky. After a half hour of chatter, some of the boys wanted to hike to the nearby tidal pools. It was a dilemma. On the one hand, I loved the tide pools. They had fascinated me since I was a child; they were one of the only things I ever looked forward to when I had to come to Forks. On the other hand, I’d also fallen into them a lot. Not a big deal when you’re seven and with your dad. It reminded me of Edward’s request – that I not fall into the ocean. Lauren was the one who made my decision for me. She didn’t want to hike, and she was definitely wearing the wrong shoes for it. Most of the other girls besides Angela and Jessica decided to stay on the beach as well. I waited until Tyler and Eric had committed to remaining with them before I got up quietly to join the pro-hiking group. Mike gave me a huge smile when he saw that I was coming. The hike wasn’t too long, though I hated to lose the sky in the woods. The green light of the forest was strangely at odds with the adolescent laughter, too murky and ominous to be in harmony with the light banter around me. I had to watch each step I took very carefully, avoiding roots below and branches above, and I soon fell behind. Eventually I broke through the emerald confines of the forest and found the rocky shore again. It was low tide, and a tidal river flowed past us on its way to the sea. Along its pebbled banks, shallow pools that never completely drained were teeming with life. I was very cautious not to lean too far over the little ocean ponds. The others were fearless, leaping over the rocks, perching precariously on the edges. I found a very stable-looking rock on the fringe of one of the largest pools and sat there cautiously, spellbound by the natural aquarium below me. The bouquets of brilliant anemones undulated ceaselessly in the invisible current, twisted shells scurried about the edges, obscuring the crabs within them, starfish stuck motionless to the rocks and each other, while one small black eel with white racing stripes wove through the bright green weeds, waiting for the sea to return. I was completely absorbed, except for one small part of my mind that wondered what Edward was doing now, and trying to imagine what he would be saying if he were here with me. Finally the boys were hungry, and I got up stiffly to follow them back. I tried to keep up better this time through the woods, so naturally I fell a few times. I got some shallow scrapes on my palms, and the knees of my jeans were stained green, but it could have been worse. When we got back to First Beach, the group we’d left behind had multiplied. As we got closer we could see the shining, straight black hair and copper skin of the newcomers, teenagers from the reservation come to socialize. The food was already being passed around, and the boys hurried to claim a share while Eric introduced us as we each entered the driftwood circle. Angela and I were the last to arrive, and, as Eric said our names, I noticed a younger boy sitting on the stones near the fire glance up at me in interest. I sat down next to Angela, and Mike brought us sandwiches and an array of sodas to choose from, while a boy who looked to be the oldest of the visitors rattled off the names of the seven others with him. All I caught was that one of the girls was also named Jessica, and the boy who noticed me was named Jacob. It was relaxing to sit with Angela; she was a restful kind of person to be around – she didn’t feel the need to fill every silence with chatter. She left me free to think undisturbed while we ate. And I was thinking about how disjointedly time seemed to flow in Forks, passing in a blur at times, with single images standing out more clearly than others. And then, at other times, every second was significant, etched in my mind. I knew exactly what caused the difference, and it disturbed me. During lunch the clouds started to advance, slinking across the blue sky, darting in front of the sun momentarily, casting long shadows across the beach, and blackening the waves. As they finished eating, people started to drift away in twos and threes. Some walked down to the edge of the waves, trying to skip rocks across the choppy surface. Others were gathering a second expedition to the tide pools. Mike – with Jessica shadowing him – headed up to the one shop in the village. Some of the local kids went with them; others went along on the hike. By the time they all had scattered, I was sitting alone on my driftwood log, with Lauren and Tyler occupying themselves by the CD player someone had thought to bring, and three teenagers from the reservation perched around the circle, including the boy named Jacob and the oldest boy who had acted as spokesperson. A few minutes after Angela left with the hikers, Jacob sauntered over to take her place by my side. He looked fourteen, maybe fifteen, and had long, glossy black hair pulled back with a rubber band at the nape of his neck. His skin was beautiful, silky and russet-colored; his eyes were dark, set deep above the high planes of his cheekbones. He still had just a hint of childish roundness left around his chin. Altogether, a very pretty face. However, my positive opinion of his looks was damaged by the first words out of his mouth. â€Å"You’re Isabella Swan, aren’t you?† It was like the first day of school all over again. â€Å"Bella,† I sighed. â€Å"I’m Jacob Black.† He held his hand out in a friendly gesture. â€Å"You bought my dad’s truck.† â€Å"Oh,† I said, relieved, shaking his sleek hand. â€Å"You’re Billy’s son. I probably should remember you.† â€Å"No, I’m the youngest of the family – you would remember my older sisters.† â€Å"Rachel and Rebecca,† I suddenly recalled. Charlie and Billy had thrown us together a lot during my visits, to keep us busy while they fished. We were all too shy to make much progress as friends. Of course, I’d kicked up enough tantrums to end the fishing trips by the time I was eleven. â€Å"Are they here?† I examined the girls at the ocean’s edge, wondering if I would recognize them now. â€Å"No.† Jacob shook his head. â€Å"Rachel got a scholarship to Washington State, and Rebecca married a Samoan surfer – she lives in Hawaii now.† â€Å"Married. Wow.† I was stunned. The twins were only a little over a year older than I was. â€Å"So how do you like the truck?† he asked. â€Å"I love it. It runs great.† â€Å"Yeah, but it’s really slow,† he laughed. â€Å"I was so relived when Charlie bought it. My dad wouldn’t let me work on building another car when we had a perfectly good vehicle right there.† â€Å"It’s not that slow,† I objected. â€Å"Have you tried to go over sixty?† â€Å"No,† I admitted. â€Å"Good. Don’t.† He grinned. I couldn’t help grinning back. â€Å"It does great in a collision,† I offered in my truck’s defense. â€Å"I don’t think a tank could take out that old monster,† he agreed with another laugh. â€Å"So you build cars?† I asked, impressed. â€Å"When I have free time, and parts. You wouldn’t happen to know where I could get my hands on a master cylinder for a 1986 Volkswagen Rabbit?† he added jokingly. He had a pleasant, husky voice. â€Å"Sorry,† I laughed, â€Å"I haven’t seen any lately, but I’ll keep my eyes open for you.† As if I knew what that was. He was very easy to talk with. He flashed a brilliant smile, looking at me appreciatively in a way I was learning to recognize. I wasn’t the only one who noticed. â€Å"You know Bella, Jacob?† Lauren asked – in what I imagined was an insolent tone – from across the fire. â€Å"We’ve sort of known each other since I was born,† he laughed, smiling at me again. â€Å"How nice.† She didn’t sound like she thought it was nice at all, and her pale, fishy eyes narrowed. â€Å"Bella,† she called again, watching my face carefully, â€Å"I was just saying to Tyler that it was too bad none of the Cullens could come out today. Didn’t anyone think to invite them?† Her expression of concern was unconvincing. â€Å"You mean Dr. Carlisle Cullen’s family?† the tall, older boy asked before I could respond, much to Lauren’s irritation. He was really closer to a man than a boy, and his voice was very deep. â€Å"Yes, do you know them?† she asked condescendingly, turning halfway toward him. â€Å"The Cullens don’t come here,† he said in a tone that closed the subject, ignoring her question. Tyler, trying to win back her attention, asked Lauren’s opinion on a CD he held. She was distracted. I stared at the deep-voiced boy, taken aback, but he was looking away toward the dark forest behind us. He’d said that the Cullens didn’t come here, but his tone had implied something more – that they weren’t allowed; they were prohibited. His manner left a strange impression on me, and I tried to ignore it without success. Jacob interrupted my meditation. â€Å"So is Forks driving you insane yet?† â€Å"Oh, I’d say that’s an understatement.† I grimaced. He grinned understandingly. I was still turning over the brief comment on the Cullens, and I had a sudden inspiration. It was a stupid plan, but I didn’t have any better ideas. I hoped that young Jacob was as yet inexperienced around girls, so that he wouldn’t see through my sure-to-be-pitiful attempts at flirting. â€Å"Do you want to walk down the beach with me?† I asked, trying to imitate that way Edward had of looking up from underneath his eyelashes. It couldn’t have nearly the same effect, I was sure, but Jacob jumped up willingly enough. As we walked north across the multihued stones toward the driftwood seawall, the clouds finally closed ranks across the sky, causing the sea to darken and the temperature to drop. I shoved my hands deep into the pockets of my jacket. â€Å"So you’re, what, sixteen?† I asked, trying not to look like an idiot as I fluttered my eyelids the way I’d seen girls do on TV. â€Å"I just turned fifteen,† he confessed, flattered. â€Å"Really?† My face was full of false surprise. â€Å"I would have thought you were older.† â€Å"I’m tall for my age,† he explained. â€Å"Do you come up to Forks much?† I asked archly, as if I was hoping for a yes. I sounded idiotic to myself. I was afraid he would turn on me with disgust and accuse me of my fraud, but he still seemed flattered. â€Å"Not too much,† he admitted with a frown. â€Å"But when I get my car finished I can go up as much as I want – after I get my license,† he amended. â€Å"Who was that other boy Lauren was talking to? He seemed a little old to be hanging out with us.† I purposefully lumped myself in with the youngsters, trying to make it clear that I preferred Jacob. â€Å"That’s Sam – he’s nineteen,† he informed me. â€Å"What was that he was saying about the doctor’s family?† I asked innocently. â€Å"The Cullens? Oh, they’re not supposed to come onto the reservation.† He looked away, out toward James Island, as he confirmed what I’d thought I’d heard in Sam’s voice. â€Å"Why not?† He glanced back at me, biting his lip. â€Å"Oops. I’m not supposed to say anything about that.† â€Å"Oh, I won’t tell anyone, I’m just curious.† I tried to make my smile alluring, wondering if I was laying it on too thick. He smiled back, though, looking allured. Then he lifted one eyebrow and his voice was even huskier than before. â€Å"Do you like scary stories?† he asked ominously. â€Å"I love them,† I enthused, making an effort to smolder at him. Jacob strolled to a nearby driftwood tree that had its roots sticking out like the attenuated legs of a huge, pale spider. He perched lightly on one of the twisted roots while I sat beneath him on the body of the tree. He stared down at the rocks, a smile hovering around the edges of his broad lips. I could see he was going to try to make this good. I focused on keeping the vital interest I felt out of my eyes. â€Å"Do you know any of our old stories, about where we came from – the Quileutes, I mean?† he began. â€Å"Not really,† I admitted. â€Å"Well, there are lots of legends, some of them claiming to date back to the Flood – supposedly, the ancient Quileutes tied their canoes to the tops of the tallest trees on the mountain to survive like Noah and the ark.† He smiled, to show me how little stock he put in the histories. â€Å"Another legend claims that we descended from wolves – and that the wolves are our brothers still. It’s against tribal law to kill them. â€Å"Then there are the stories about the cold ones.† His voice dropped a little lower. â€Å"The cold ones?† I asked, not faking my intrigue now. â€Å"Yes. There are stories of the cold ones as old as the wolf legends, and some much more recent. According to legend, my own great-grandfather knew some of them. He was the one who made the treaty that kept them off our land.† He rolled his eyes. â€Å"Your great-grandfather?† I encouraged. â€Å"He was a tribal elder, like my father. You see, the cold ones are the natural enemies of the wolf-well, not the wolf, really, but the wolves that turn into men, like our ancestors. You would call them werewolves.† â€Å"Werewolves have enemies?† â€Å"Only one.† I stared at him earnestly, hoping to disguise my impatience as admiration. â€Å"So you see,† Jacob continued, â€Å"the cold ones are traditionally our enemies. But this pack that came to our territory during my great-grandfather’s time was different. They didn’t hunt the way others of their kind did – they weren’t supposed to be dangerous to the tribe. So my great-grandfather made a truce with them. If they would promise to stay off our lands, we wouldn’t expose them to the pale-faces.† He winked at me. â€Å"If they weren’t dangerous, then why†¦ ?† I tried to understand, struggling not to let him see how seriously I was considering his ghost story. â€Å"There’s always a risk for humans to be around the cold ones, even if they’re civilized like this clan was. You never know when they might get too hungry to resist.† He deliberately worked a thick edge of menace into his tone. â€Å"What do you mean, ‘civilized’?† â€Å"They claimed that they didn’t hunt humans. They supposedly were somehow able to prey on animals instead.† I tried to keep my voice casual. â€Å"So how does it fit in with the Cullens? Are they like the cold ones your greatgrandfather met?† â€Å"No.† He paused dramatically. â€Å"They are the same ones.† He must have thought the expression on my face was fear inspired by his story. He smiled, pleased, and continued. â€Å"There are more of them now, a new female and a new male, but the rest are the same. In my great-grandfather’s time they already knew of the leader, Carlisle. He’d been here and gone before your people had even arrived.† He was fighting a smile. â€Å"And what are they?† I finally asked. â€Å"What are the cold ones?† He smiled darkly. â€Å"Blood drinkers,† he replied in a chilling voice. â€Å"Your people call them vampires.† I stared out at the rough surf after he answered, not sure what my face was exposing. â€Å"You have goose bumps,† he laughed delightedly. â€Å"You’re a good storyteller,† I complimented him, still staring into the waves. â€Å"Pretty crazy stuff, though, isn’t it? No wonder my dad doesn’t want us to talk about it to anyone.† I couldn’t control my expression enough to look at him yet. â€Å"Don’t worry, I won’t give you away.† â€Å"I guess I just violated the treaty,† he laughed. â€Å"I’ll take it to the grave,† I promised, and then I shivered. â€Å"Seriously, though, don’t say anything to Charlie. He was pretty mad at my dad when he heard that some of us weren’t going to the hospital since Dr. Cullen started working there.† â€Å"I won’t, of course not.† â€Å"So do you think we’re a bunch of superstitious natives or what?† he asked in a playful tone, but with a hint of worry. I still hadn’t looked away from the ocean. I turned and smiled at him as normally as I could. â€Å"No. I think you’re very good at telling scary stories, though. I still have goose bumps, see?† I held up my arm. â€Å"Cool.† He smiled. And then the sound of the beach rocks clattering against each other warned us that someone was approaching. Our heads snapped up at the same time to see Mike and Jessica about fifty yards away, walking toward us. â€Å"There you are, Bella,† Mike called in relief, waving his arm over his head. â€Å"Is that your boyfriend?† Jacob asked, alerted by the jealous edge in Mike’s voice. I was surprised it was so obvious. â€Å"No, definitely not,† I whispered. I was tremendously grateful to Jacob, and eager to make him as happy as possible. I winked at him, carefully turning away from Mike to do so. He smiled, elated by my inept flirting. â€Å"So when I get my license†¦Ã¢â‚¬  he began. â€Å"You should come see me in Forks. We could hang out sometime.† I felt guilty as I said this, knowing that I’d used him. But I really did like Jacob. He was someone I could easily be friends with. Mike had reached us now, with Jessica still a few paces back. I could see his eyes appraising Jacob, and looking satisfied at his obvious youth. â€Å"Where have you been?† he asked, though the answer was right in front of him. â€Å"Jacob was just telling me some local stories,† I volunteered. â€Å"It was really interesting.† I smiled at Jacob warmly, and he grinned back. â€Å"Well,† Mike paused, carefully reassessing the situation as he watched our camaraderie. â€Å"We’re packing up – it looks like it’s going to rain soon.† We all looked up at the glowering sky. It certainly did look like rain. â€Å"Okay.† I jumped up. â€Å"I’m coming.† â€Å"It was nice to see you again,† Jacob said, and I could tell he was taunting Mike just a bit. â€Å"It really was. Next time Charlie comes down to see Billy, I’ll come, too,† I promised. His grin stretched across his face. â€Å"That would be cool.† â€Å"And thanks,† I added earnestly. I pulled up my hood as we tramped across the rocks toward the parking lot. A few drops were beginning to fall, making black spots on the stones where they landed. When we got to the Suburban the others were already loading everything back in. I crawled into the backseat by Angela and Tyler, announcing that I’d already had my turn in the shotgun position. Angela just stared out the window at the escalating storm, and Lauren twisted around in the middle seat to occupy Tyler’s attention, so I could simply lay my head back on the seat and close my eyes and try very hard not to think. How to cite Twilight 6. SCARY STORIES, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Animated television series Essay Example For Students

Animated television series Essay The Simpsons is an animated television series showing adventures of the Simpson family. In particular it focuses on Bart Simpson, the familys 10 year old son. The show is enjoyed by a wide audience, from children to adults. One of the most recognizable aspects of the cartoon is its title sequence which is, in it self a short cartoon.  The beginning and ending of the title sequence are quite different and give you two different impressions of the program. It starts of with heavenly angelic music and with a camera shot of a blue sky and white fluffy clouds. From this you would expect a little childs program that is happy. On this section of the sequence the title also appears from amongst clouds and then the camera zooms in onto the title and through the letters to see an aerial view of Springfield. By the end of the sequence you probably no longer think that it is about a heavenly family more likely a hellish family. It always ends with the Simpsons family coming home and running chaotically onto the sofa. Throughout the sequence the soundtrack is provided by a jazzy orchestra and although it changes slightly for different scenes it is much the same. There is an upbeat tempo which reflects the action of the title sequence. In different sections of the sequence emphasizes is on different instruments that are being played which reflects what is going on. Part way into the sequence you can recognize a saxophone solo played by Lisa, which as well as adding to the comic element it also gives you an insight to her personality. At the beginning you can identify a harp being played which helps the heavenly effect comer through. The title sequence zooms about around Springfield and shows you that it is stereo typical town of America. During the title sequence the camera shows a variety of long and short shots and swoops about and shows you all the main places where the cartoon takes place including the Simpsons house, Bart and Lisas school and the power plant where Homer works. The effect of doing this is it helps to set the scene and get a bearing of Springfield. The whole title sequence is based around following the Simpsons family going home from their daily activities. Homer goes home in his car from work; Bart rides his skateboard home after a detention at school; Lisa rides her bike home from a band after school and Marge drives Maggie and her home after going to the supermarket. By showing you what they do during the day you can get a better idea of what their personality is like. The title sequence is similar to other cartoons in the way it has funny music and a style like many other animated television shows. However, the cartoon involves a whole family instead on just one or two main characters. Every episode some aspects of the sequence change slightly and every series there are more changes. One of the things that changes every show is what Bart is writing on the blackboard in detention. The effect of making this change is that it adds to the humour and makes regular viewers have a reason to want to watch it. Another change that happens every episode is how the Simpson family sits on the sofa at the end of the title sequence. Sometimes they dance before sitting on the sofa together but other times the sofa may turn into a bed or fall through the floor. Lisas saxophone changes every series to a different tune but they are all quite similar. Occasionally there are special episodes which make the whole title sequence change altogether. These are often to do with Halloween and instead of the heavenly beginning, Marge says a speech warning new viewers of what is coming. .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016 , .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016 .postImageUrl , .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016 , .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016:hover , .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016:visited , .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016:active { border:0!important; } .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016:active , .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016 .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uf55c093e6d615f1def7cf340163f8016:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The attributes to create a good film EssayFrom the title sequence we see that Springfield is a busy environment and its inhabitants are a bit abnormal. During the sequence we are shown a variety if aspects of Springfield and we can get a good understanding of what Springfields environment is like. We are helped to set the scene and get this understanding by being shown the places we see in most episodes. We see all of the inhabitants of Springfield somewhere in the title sequence whether they are shopping or just standing on the streets. However all the characters are doing something we associate with them. Some of them are just pulling faces, so we can guess what they are thinking, but others are playing in a band or at work. For example we link Bart with a naughty and cheeky boy and in the title sequence you can tell that he has been this way when you see him writing lines on the blackboard in detention. Overall, I think the title sequence is very effective and has been well thought out. The music is very lively and fits in with the short cartoon very well, it keeps it moving and helps it flow from one part to another. If you didnt have this music in the background the title sequence would not be as funny or as good. There is also a great contrast between the beginning and the end of the title sequence so if you were a first time viewer you would maybe find this quite humourous and even some regular viewers like this contrast. By showing you this title sequence you can see that this cartoon is different to others by involving a whole family and that is going to be a amusing show you are about to watch. The title sequence is also very recognizable and helps to promote the show.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

More Than a Dream free essay sample

I have wanted to be a writer since I was eleven years old. Not just any writer, but a real, published writer. Even at that immature age, these dreams were close to my heart; I wanted desperately to be published. I remember my hopeful young self mailing a copy of my manuscript to Puffin Canada. This publishing house was compassionate; several long weeks later, they sent me a letter encouraging me to continue writing, but also bluntly explaining that they did not publish short stories, nor did they publish work by non-Canadians. It was kind of the publisher to write back, no doubt, but the truth was that I had come no closer to my goal of becoming a world-famous author. I am still a hopeful, yet-to-be-published writer. The only difference is that now I am 17, not 11, and my English classes are no longer spent writing imaginative short stories but rather honing and enhancing analytical skills to examine literary works. We will write a custom essay sample on More Than a Dream or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I miss those sixth-grade English classes since, more often than not, I was given the freedom to concoct whatever magic my imagination fancied, soaking in the pure pleasure of writing whatever I felt comfortable with and cheered by. Last year, some of this inspiration left over from my childhood developed into what seemed a brilliant idea for a novel. I was overwhelmed with excitement and worked on the story late each night, eager to press on and finish my first novel. I had never before finished anything more than a couple of pages long. â€Å"When you finish your book, Jane,† a good friend promised, â€Å"I’ll treat you to a meal at Fat Angelo’s.† Fat Angelo’s is a delightful, delicious Italian restaurant in Hong Kong. Another friend and neighbor would always ask about the latest developments in my stories when we rode the bus home together. Being a proud, hopeful writer, I always had lots to say. â€Å"You’ll be a famous writer someday,† my buddy from Edmonton posted kindly on my website. I believed them. I could be diligent when I wanted to be, and in this case, I desperately did. I got little sleep and my homework load was steadily increasing but I refused to allow anything to stand between me and my success as a published writer. I was close this time, closer than I had ever been. When I had over 80 double-spaced pages, I was more than a little proud of myself. Sadly, it became increasingly difficult to write, partly because I had thoughtlessly skipped over essential planning at the start of my novel. I didn’t know what I could do with my main character, the charming Arielle, considering that she had pitifully committed suicide under my orders. I had failed to plan. And as my father says, â€Å"To fail to plan is to plan to fail.† I hate it when he says that. But oh, how true! Reading back over what I had written, I found more problems with the story than just a failure to plan. The story was extremely dumb. It was almost unbearable to find that the parts I had meant to be sad, tear-jerking moments were in fact foolish and silly. The romantic segments I had so lovingly crafted were immature and unrealistic. It was horrifying. That â€Å"book† was itself horrifying. It was terribly disappointing to see my many months of work go to waste. Once again, even after so much time and effort had been devoted to writing, my dreams were not one inch closer to reality than five years before. Today, I am 17. Slightly older than 11, slightly wiser than 16. Perhaps by now I have finally learned the truth about writing: it takes more than a dream. Perseverance and brilliance are right up there, too.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Three Sisters Essay Example

Three Sisters Essay Example Three Sisters Paper Three Sisters Paper In the light of your study of Stanislavski and after seeing Miss Julie how would you direct the opening act of Three Sisters? The opening of Act One of Chekhovs Three Sisters, gives detailed stage directions, which offers valuable information on the main characters of the play; the three sisters, Irina, Masha and Olga. As a director, I would encourage the actors playing these roles to read the information, as it defines clearly the different characters of the sisters, and so can be used for characterisation. As a director, I am fully aware that Three Sisters is a realist play; therefore, this would prompt me to use Stanislavski methods to develop true to life portrayals of the characters. The following is a sketch of Act One: During the opening of the play the three sisters will sit in their designated areas and the audience will watch while Olga marks her books, Irina puts on make-up for her party, and Masha reads a book on the window seat, subdued. In the background (the ballroom), the table will be laid by a servant, which could be played by Anfisa, the old nurse. The clip-clop sound of her heels as she rushes about will make stark contrast to the silence of the sisters. I aspire to obtain the audience to suspend their disbelief, and remain this through-out the play. This idea is heavily influenced by the theatre production of After Miss Julie. My intention is for the audience to see the closeness of the relationship between Olga and Irina. Moreover, to see how Masha is the recluse of the sisters, and overlooked by them due to her quietness and concealed emotions. Olga (as indicated by her regulation dark-blue dress of a high school teacher) is the mother figure for the sisters, especially Irina, who never really knew her mum. Irina seems distant from her sisters, as she is the only young one left, and she is still happy-go-lucky and enjoys her life without worry. Olga is the oldest, and uses this to boss the others sisters around. Olga is the only sister to work, and so is constantly moaning about her work. She revels in being the sister with authority, but also resents it, as she feels forced into work since her fathers death. Her movements should be very swift, and she should constantly be moving around, making herself busy, yet achieving nothing, reflecting a theme of the play. This will create humour for the audience, as they will see her fussing over everything, yet doing nothing. Her movements should be very rapid, restless, and hurried. Using Stanislavskis methods, I would find out the super objective of Olgas character, to create naturalism. Personally, I believe Olgas motivations in life are to return to Moscow, and find a husband. This is from the social context of the play, where many women believed they needed a husband to achieve true happiness, and also a husband would result in Olga not needing a job. To show this in the play I will show Olga being extremely interested in Tuzenback and flirtatiously behaving with him as he talks about Vershinin. This can be achieved by making lots of eye contact with him and her moving closer to him, until she hears he has a wife, and then she will sharply turn away. An objective of Olgas character is to continue working, although she says It wears me out, I believe she loves it and could not just sit at home like the other sisters. This arises one of the themes of the play work. None of the sisters worked previously as they are wealthy and do not have the need to work. I believe Chekhov used this to show that you need to work to have ambition and achieve in life. This is shown in the play, as all the sisters ambition is to return to Moscow, yet none of them does anything towards this ambition. Chekhov himself was born into a poor family, but worked hard and achieved an amazing amount. I think this highlights the social context of the play between rich and poor. Rich and poor is an underlying theme of Act One, and was an important issue in the era of the play. Natasha is of low class, and so discriminated against by the sisters who believe she is not good enough for their beloved Andrew. Masha in particular scrutinises everything about Natasha, from her clothes, which are downright pathetic to her make-up and hair. This shows a very materialistic viewpoint, and shows no intent to get to know Natasha, just judge her because of her class. This also shows how much the sisters love Andrew and do not want him getting hurt. I believe the sisters are very jealous of allowing another female into their household, which is why they resent Natasha. In Act One Natasha should be portrayed as a very timid young woman, this can be shown by her emotional outbursts and general uncertainty. Natasha and Andrew provide the only true love shown in Act One, and as they finish the Act, lead the audience to believe there will be much more to come. The couple give an optimistic out-look that good things can come out of bad situations, and I think this leaves the end of Act One on a happy and loving end. The sketch of the set of the play shows Masha is facing the audience she will be able to communicate with them, they will be able to see clearly her facial expressions, which will create an intimacy with the audience, and I hope result in the audience watching Masha and perhaps feeling sympathy for her. Being in at the side of the other two sisters also allows Olga and Irina to talk about Masha in whispers, and direct facial expressions at her, without her noticing. The description of Masha in a black dress, sits with her hat on her lap reading a book convey the isolation of her character. The black portrays seriousness, and hiding her feelings from the other sisters. I believe Masha is a character who tries to forget everything bad in her life. I think this results in her feeling severely depressed, as in the instance of the death of her father; bottling up her feelings has resulted in Masha not getting over the death, just replaying it repeatedly in her mind, effectively making her unable to think of anything else and become further withdrawn. She rarely speaks, and because of this, the sisters cannot help her. However when Masha does speak, it upsets the other sisters as Masha is the strong one, and causes them to break down with her; Olga particularly loses control. Masha is also depressed over her marriage; she believed her husband was intelligent and wise, and now she refuses to accept the reality that he is not this, and she does not love him. The audience will have an insight into the true Masha, an insecure person, who is deeply upset by her sisters relationship and her life in general. This will be shown by Masha observing the play, without allowing the other characters to see (which will create dramatic irony), and reacting to the action behind her, while facing the audience. Masha can use the audience as a friend, and watch them rather than interact with her sisters. Mashas facial expressions are very important in order to portray her character naturalistically. Due to this I would use Stanislavskis acting method of emotion memory, by asking the actress playing Masha to remember how it felt in a part of her life when she had no one to help her, and her life was disappearing before her eyes. I would then ask her to use these feelings with Masha, to create naturalism. Part of Mashas character resents the close relationship between Olga and Irina, and this leads to her feeling more isolated. This will be shown when Masha whistles. The whistle will be one of those pretend Im not here whistles but at the same time, the whistle will remind the other sisters of Mashas existence. There is a different side to Mashas character that occasionally shows a more ambitious and happy person; such as when she proclaims You only live once, where I believe Mashas voice should change from a bored, monotonous, pre-occupied, slow and quiet voice to a faster, excited, almost breathy voice. This will highlight the change of character and therefore the comedy-tragedy that Chekhov aimed will succeed. Both the sisters adore Irina, the youngest, but especially Olga, because of their mother-daughter type relationship. Again, the stage directions explain Irinas character, in a white dress, stands lost in thought. Irina is young and free, with no commitments in life, and has time to spend her day deep in thought. Her character is portrayed through her becoming very excitable at the thought of her oncoming party, and applying make-up and choosing her clothes. This shows that she has the time to spend doing these useless tasks, and demonstrates her need to dress-up to feel more important and grown-up, as well as impress the male guests. Irina is innocent and pure, as indicated by her white dress, but can be immature, such as when she remarks I know everything, which show she believes she has knowledge, which is expanded on later in the play when Masha remarks We know too much, while talking to Andrew about their education. I believe Chekhov is making a political point about how many people believe they know too much, when they know nothing. Chekhov was very philosophical (which reflects in many of his characters including Masha and Solyony), and once said Only Charlatans know everything and understand nothing. This is true to many characters of the play; for example Tuzenback, has never worked a day in his life, and believes he learns all he needs through newspapers. As a director, I would use this to create humour, by allowing the audience to laugh at these sad people, who have no grasp on reality. The theme of ambition plays a large part of Act One, as well as the rest of the play. All three of the sisters are striving towards moving back to Moscow, as this is where all their happy memories are. However, none of the sisters do anything towards their ambition, and so nothing changes in their lives. This again highlights how sad rich peoples lives can be, as they have no drive to do anything for themselves, as they can happily survive on what their family provides for them. To show this in the play I would have the characters constantly fussing over the clock (placed in the centre of the drawing room). This will represent how time is passing by in front of them without them realising, while they continue their petty lives. Each of the characters deep down knows they will not achieve their dream, but each of them long for it all the same. The theme of ambition also shows the frustration of the sisters, particularly Masha, to escape to the big city yet they only talk about it. Again, I believe Chekhov is making a social statement about the amount of people in Russia who wanted to change the out-dated social order at the time of the play, yet did nothing to achieve this goal. This theme is personal to Chekhov, as he DID return to his family in Moscow, showing you can achieve dreams with effort. I would achieve comedy throughout Act One using the various characters Chekhov included to provide comic relief for the audience, characters such as Tuzenback, Chebutykin, and Solyony, to distract from the awful tragedy of the majority of the play. These characters can be completely over-acted but still believable. These characters are typical nutty professors and they should all be dressed eccentrically, and constantly thinking of new ideas. The doctor is the typical result of doing too much work in his life, meaning he has been driven crazy. To achieve humour the actors must fully believe every word they say and make sure they take themselves seriously, even though they are clowns. These characters all flirt with the sisters, that also creates humour, and I believe they find it their duty to look after the sisters since their fathers death. This is another case of the characters believing they know more than they do. Another chance for comedy is how the three sisters smother Andrew, and clap at him and generally treat him like a child. Humour is achieved by making the sisters become over-enthusiastic mothers, fussing over Andrew, and showing off his achievements, such as the frames on the piano. The audience will be able to relate to this experience and so find it very funny. Ferapont can also be used to create humour because he can be played as a typical bewildered, deaf, old man. The setting of Act One will be very naturalistic, all props will be used (including knives, forks, table cloth, tables, samovar, chairs, cake, columns, curtains and swords), with fully made-up rooms, including appropriate flooring, curtains, and wallpaper, with everything looking aged, to fit with the period of the play. Many unused and often ugly but expensive ornaments will be placed around the ballroom, to show how the Prozorovs have lots of money for luxurious items, as well as painting scattered on the walls and an old bookcase. The ballroom table will also convey the wealth of the family, using ridiculous numbers of knives and forks around the immaculately placed plates, with flowers in the middle of the table, to indicate the springtime time of year. Lighting will be used to mimic natural sunlight streaming through the windows. The audience will be situated around the stage in a semi-circle, and the audience size will be small (around 250), so they will all be very close to the actors. This will make the audience feel more involved, and make the drama more realistic, personal, and believable. All costumes will be to date, and according to the stage directions and only natural make-up will be used. All male soldiers will be wearing military uniforms and civilian clothing. The pace of Act One will develop throughout, to prepare the audience for more tension and a climax in the following acts. In conclusion, I believe the relationship between the three sisters is the focus of Act One, and how they react to other people. I believe the solution to making this play work theatrically is to use Chekhovs idea of comedy and tragedy, to develop the naturalism of the play, as life often has highs and lows. The tragedy of the play creates tension and allows the audience to relate to characters, and then the comedy allows the audience to forget the problems and enjoy the play, as well as making the tragedy more obvious, and at times heartbreaking. To develop Act One I would continue to use Stanislavski methods to increase the naturalism of the play, and improve characterisation.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Nursing - Critically Reflective Account of a Leadership Issue Research Paper

Nursing - Critically Reflective Account of a Leadership Issue Pertinent to Your Own Work Role - Research Paper Example Research supports the concept that there is no one specific method or style that works all the time. Rather, the leader of a healthcare organization should understand and identify with employees and tailor his or her approach accordingly. Recent reforms have required healthcare organizations to implement new ways of operating and to redefine their purposes, the nature of their work and the relationships between employees. Old-style, top-down bureaucracies are being replaced by organizational structures and cultures in which shared the vision, partnerships, patient empowerment, and collaboration across professions and agencies, are emphasized. â€Å"Effective clinical leadership is essential in delivering the high-quality, person-centered care envisioned by health minister Lord Darzi in the final report of the NHS Next stage review, High-Quality Care for All† (department of health (DH) 2008). Lord Darzi says in his report, that â€Å"it is through unlocking talent that we will achieve high-quality care across the board†. ‘Unlocking talent’ involves tapping into the leadership abilities and potential of all front line staff to deliver high-quality, safe and efficient care to patients and service users. There are four key ideas that should be understood and explored in the creation of an appropriate workplace for health professionals in the new environment. They are patients, management, staff performance, and leadership. The changing requirements and concerns of patients demand that healthcare is delivered in integrated care patterns spreading across some clinical disciplines. (Edmonstone 2005, 10-11) A look into the future of healthcare points clearly toward an integrated approach to the dispensing of health services, from hospital care to health and community agencies. Healthcare in future will be considered from a whole systems approach with the appropriate inter-agency partnership to ensure faultless care. The new workplace must allow for  project-based teams, with core teams and provisional specialists who move from one core team to another.